Gaspar Saladino is my favorite letterer. I already liked his work when I started at DC Comics in 1977, and soon came to appreciate it even more seeing it in person. I also met Gaspar then, but didn’t get to know him well until much later. He was always friendly and cheerful, with a hearty laugh, when he brought his work into the DC offices. As with Ira Schnapp, I’ve written dozens of articles about Gaspar on my blog, but what’s missing is a one-article summary and overview of his life and work, and that’s what I’m doing here, with links to all the other articles about him. His SWAMP THING logo, above, is my favorite of his many logos, I love the organic shapes, energy, and mix of brush and pen work on the outlines and inner textures. It evokes the character and the original series perfectly.
Gaspar Leonard Saladino was born September 1, 1927 in Brooklyn, New York, where he grew up with his parents and younger brother Anthony. As a child he was a fan of comic strips like Secret Agent X-9 by Dashiell Hammett and Alex Raymond. He was also a comics reader, and had a small airplane drawing published in FUNNY PAGES Volume 3 no. 8, October 1939, when he was 11. After grade school, Gaspar attended Manhattan’s High School of Industrial Art (later renamed the High School of Art and Design), commuting to school by subway from Brooklyn. Many of that school’s students became comics professionals including Neal Adams, Jack Adler, Frank Giacoia, Joe Giella, Dick Giordano, Sol Harrison, Carmine Infantino, Gil Kane, Bernard Krigstein, Joe Kubert, Joe Orlando, John Romita Sr., and Alex Toth. Of these, Gaspar said in a 2007 interview with “Robby Reed” for his Dial B for Blog website: “Joe Kubert I knew of. And I knew Carmine and Gil Kane. I knew Joe Orlando. Joe was in my grade. Alex Toth was in the grade below me.” Joe Giella was also a classmate. While Gaspar was in high school, some of the New York comics shops employed students, and Gaspar did a little inking for the Lloyd Jacquet Studio, describing them as “occasional one or two-pagers.”
Gaspar graduated in 1945 with a major in Cartooning, and was soon drafted into the Air Force. In the 2007 interview he said, “I was stationed in Tokyo, Japan, which was wonderful. It was a very educational experience. I worked with the AACS (Airways and Air Communication Service) doing public relations. I didn’t do any lettering or artwork at all.” Gaspar was part of the U.S. occupation force in Japan overseen by General Douglas MacArthur, who Gaspar remembered as being an impressive figure.
After two years in the service, Gaspar returned to Brooklyn and was soon pounding the pavement looking for employment. His original direction was fashion design, but he found little work in that field. In 1949 he put together some sample comics pages that he drew, lettered and inked and took them to National (DC) Comics where production manager Sol Harrison, a graduate of his high school, was known to be friendly to other graduates. Sol showed Gaspar’s samples to the editors, and Julius Schwartz expressed interest. Julie said that, while he didn’t like Gaspar’s art enough to hire him for that, he did like his lettering, and offered him regular lettering work, which Gaspar was happy to get.
Gaspar’s first published lettering for DC appeared in ROMANCE TRAIL #5. You can see in the sample page above, with art by his former schoolmates Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella, that he was producing quite good lettering from the start, and Gaspar’s innate talent comes through in small details. Comics at the time at DC were full of words, and to make the captions a little more interesting, Gaspar has given those in panels one, three and four different style variations. I like the one with small zig-zags in the lower edge, also seen below, a clever way to add energy to a straight line. I also like the large round balloon in panel three with just four words in it, suggesting quiet speech. Articles tracking down this first Gaspar story, and his confirmation, begin HERE.
A closer look at Gaspar’s early style shows generally wide letters with an angular look. The letter S has a wide horizontal center stroke and the G has a square right side and an inward serif at the center. His question and exclamation marks are a little larger than the other lettering. These are style points that mostly continued for the rest of his lettering career.
Gaspar lettered one other single-page story in the same issue with art by another former classmate, Alex Toth. It has a handsome open title, and Gaspar used upper and lower case as well as large initial capitals in the poem.
On this page, I think Gaspar was using a wedge-tipped pen, unlike the previous story. Even at the beginning, Saladino was showing versatility. The issue would have gone on sale in Jan or Feb 1950 and been produced at least two months earlier around Oct or Nov 1949, so we can place Gaspar’s start at DC then.
Gaspar told me they initially sat him in the production room between veteran lettering man Ira Schnapp (not long on staff himself) and production artist Mort Drucker, later of Mad fame. He began lettering mainly for Julie Schwartz, but Julie’s office-mate Robert Kanigher was soon using him as well. It was freelance work paying $2 a page, but done in the office five days a week. Gaspar lettered about nine pages a day, on average (sometimes half the page was lettering), finishing about 45 pages a week. At the end of the week he’d fill out a voucher and get a check for about $90, which was good money in those days, and he was quite happy with the work and the job. Before long, Gaspar was moved to a drawing board right in the office shared by Schwartz and Kanigher, where he was always available to make lettering corrections and do new stories, a time saver for them. Gaspar thrived at DC and was soon the requested letterer of artists like Toth, Infantino, Gil Kane and Joe Kubert, and both Schwartz and Kanigher kept him busy. He also occasionally lettered for other companies like Prize, Harvey, Western and Charlton, but the majority of his early work was for DC. Below are more of his early DC story pages.
For Julie Schwartz, Gaspar did Westerns at first, but when Schwartz launched his science fiction anthology titles MYSTERY IN SPACE and STRANGE ADVENTURES, many stories were lettered by Saladino. For editor Robert Kanigher, Gaspar did romance and war stories as well as WONDER WOMAN. Saladino’s lettering in general, and particularly the radio balloons in the war story above, show the influence of letterer Frank Engli on the newspaper strip Terry and the Pirates.
Speaking of newspaper strips, Gaspar didn’t work on many, but he lettered about the first year of Dondi. He and artist Irwin Hasen would have known each other from working together at DC.
When Julie began his superhero revival with The Flash in SHOWCASE #4, Saladino was the most frequent letterer. Gaspar’s energy and creativity is easy to see in all these pages.
Gaspar lettered many of Schwartz’s new superhero titles. On GREEN LANTERN he worked with artist Gil Kane, and on THE FLASH with Carmine Infantino, who created the unusual pointing-hand captions that were often featured in that book. I’m not sure if Gaspar inked the hands, or if that was done by Carmine’s inker, often Joe Giella.
Gaspar began a long partnership with Joe Kubert in the pages of THE BRAVE AND THE BOLD where his creative underwater balloon shapes stand out in the Viking Prince example above. They would work together for years on DC’s war comics and elsewhere.
Even while very busy as a letterer, Gaspar found time to pursue his interest in fashion art in the pages of DC’s romance titles, where his “Romance In Fashion” pages, art and lettering by Saladino, often appeared from the late 1950s through the 1960s. My article on that is HERE.
Julie’s superhero revival was popular and it culminated in the first new DC superhero team in many years, The Justice League of America. Gaspar was there to letter many of them. His fame extended well beyond the halls of DC Comics. Writer/artist Larry Hama wrote in 2014: “I learned my lettering alphabet from Wally Wood, who based his on Gaspar’s. Woody said it had the most ‘zip.’” That’s quite a compliment from an artist who was also a fine letterer. Gaspar would letter Cannon and Sally Forth strips for Wood in 1972.
Gaspar worked in the DC offices for a few years, and also spent some time working in the home of artist Carmine Infantino to help Carmine get his pages done faster, he told me. While working there he met his wife-to-be Celeste Scali, a secretary for a Brooklyn-based insurance company. She lived across the street from Carmine, and was his cousin. Gaspar and Celeste were married in 1957. At first the couple lived in Queens, then they moved to a home in Plainview, Long Island in 1959 where they lived the rest of Gaspar’s life. They had three children: Greg, Lisa, and Peter. Once in Plainview, Gaspar began working at home, traveling to DC only to drop off and pick up assignments. By the late 1960s, Saladino was also designing logos and doing cover lettering for DC, below are some examples.
Carmine Infantino loved Gaspar’s work, and when he joined the management team at DC beginning in 1966, and became Editorial Director in 1967, one of the changes he made was to gradually shift the most important lettering tasks — house ads, logos and cover lettering — from the elderly Ira Schnapp to Saladino (that trend had already begun in a small way a few years earlier). Schnapp was relegated to less important work, and left the company in 1968. Gaspar rose to the challenge and his new high-profile lettering was full of creativity and energy, giving the company’s look and style a youthful boost. He designed logos for new titles, and revamped old ones for many existing titles over the next few years that were eye-catching and helped sell the product to newsstand buyers.
Saladino’s cover work gained him new fans like recent editorial hires Dick Giordano and Joe Orlando, and cover artists Neal Adams and Nick Cardy. Gaspar’s new GREEN LANTERN logo gave it depth, his unusual shape on FALLING IN LOVE suggested fashion magazine sophistication, and THE WITCHING HOUR’s logo in a giant word balloon shows impressive mastery of dry-brush technique. There were many more, and DC needed Gaspar’s help on the newsstands against the rising tide of Marvel’s new superheroes. Saladino’s house ads were a part of that, examples below.
Gaspar’s house ads followed the tradition set by Ira Schnapp, but he infused them with a new excitement and energy. Who wouldn’t want to know more about the mysterious “Boom Tube”? Were the comics promoted with such zeal as good as they sounded? Readers wanted to find out! Saladino’s display lettering seemed endlessly creative, using a wide range of styles expertly, and he was no slouch on decorative additions like comedy and tragedy masks and holiday holly. Comics at the time had few opportunities for promotion to readers, so house ads were still vitally important.
Gaspar was still lettering plenty of story pages, and perhaps his most ground-breaking work was on SWAMP THING, where at the request of writer Len Wen, he created new caption and balloon styles for the creature that were unlike anything else in comics at the time. The double outline on the balloons allowed a color-filled border to further set them apart from regular balloon lettering and the drippy captions matching the logo were perfect. Up to this time, special styles for particular characters were practically unheard of. Many letterers who came later, including myself, count Gaspar’s work on this book as the place where the trend was born. Note that at this time, Gaspar’s style had become a little more rounded than his earlier lettering, and his letter G is now circular, without a straight right side.
Gaspar’s skill did not go unnoticed at Marvel, and in 1971 he began occasionally designing logos for them. Perhaps the best known is his revamp of THE AVENGERS with an arrow in the letter “A,” still in use today for the Avengers films and comics. Gaspar was soon also doing cover lettering for Marvel, and found himself in the odd position of competing with himself, having cover lettering and logos for both DC and Marvel on the newsstands at the same time. He was, after all, a freelancer, and had no contract at DC, so he was able to work for both companies. The Shazam Awards were presented by the Academy of Comic Book Arts, a comics professional organization, from 1970 to 1974 for excellence in comics, the first such awards to include Best Letterer as a category. Since letterers were not yet credited at DC, it’s notable that Gaspar won in 1971 and 1973. His work was known and liked by his peers.
Gaspar occasionally lettered full stories for Marvel using pen names like L.P. Gregory, but more often he was hired to letter only the first page of an issue, with the rest lettered by someone else. Marvel apparently felt his skill would help draw in readers picking up the comics at newsstands for a quick look inside, and perhaps they were right. The example above has Gaspar’s distinctive style on page one, while the rest is lettered by Artie Simek, as credited. I believe Saladino was paid extra for this kind of work. He did lots of it in the 1970s.
When DC and Marvel pitted their top characters against each other in a 1976 one-shot, who better to letter it than Gaspar? He told me he liked lettering this and other oversized comics being put out by both companies at the time in what they called tabloid size, about 10 by 13 inches. The art was drawn larger, and the extra space gave Gaspar more room to be creative. Perhaps the best of them was Superman vs. Muhammad Ali with amazing art by Neal Adams and Dick Giordano and equally amazing lettering by Gaspar. I started working in DC’s production department in 1977, and one of my first jobs was doing corrections and production work on that book. I couldn’t believe how excellent it all was! I’d been a comics reader and fan for many years, but the original art was much more impressive than the printed comics. Letterers had recently begun getting printed credit at DC around that time, and I and the rest of the comics world was learning the name Gaspar (he often used just his first name in credits) and came to appreciate his talent. So did many of the other letterers of my generation. It was Marvel letterer Jim Novak who gave Gaspar his nickname “The Master,” and many of us agreed. He was indeed the master of his craft, and the one whose work we all aspired to. None of us came close! Gaspar was always friendly, but kept his lettering process close to the vest, as he felt many other letterers were trying to copy him. He was right. I was one of them.
Publisher Martin Goodman sold Marvel Comics in 1968 and left the company in 1972. In 1974 he started Seaboard Periodicals, a new company which competed with Marvel and DC on the newsstand under the name Atlas Comics, recalling his former distribution company. Goodman’s staff hired Gaspar Saladino to design all the logos for their line, some are shown above. It’s a tour-de-force example of Gaspar’s talent in my opinion, with a wide variety of styles to match the many genres represented, and all of them excellent. Sadly, the company did not last much more than a year.
Back at DC, Gaspar was tapped to letter the company’s first newspaper strip in many years featuring their best-known characters, though later the focus narrowed to mainly Superman. This was Gaspar’s longest-running and best-known strip, in newspapers from 1978 to 1985, He also lettered Lancelot by Paul Coker and Frank Ridgway in 1970-72, Horace and Buggy by Paul Coker and Duck Edwing in 1971, and The Virtue of Vera Valiant by Stan Lee and Frank Springer in 1976-77. More on Gaspar’s newspaper strip work HERE.
The bulk of Saladino’s lettering work was for DC Comics, and to a lesser extent, Marvel Comics, but he also worked for other publishers. Uncredited lettering by Gaspar turned up occasionally in National Lampoon, as in Neal Adams’ Son-O-God Comics, example above, a job Gaspar was happy not to have his name on, he told me, because of it’s sacrilegious content.
He was also the regular letterer on the work of Duck Edwing at Mad by 1988. As the years rolled by, Gaspar would visit his New York City clients weekly to drop off and pick up pages. He also tried working on staff at DC a few times to fill in for vacationing staffers, perhaps thinking back to his early days at the company, but it was a longer commute from his home on Long Island than it had been from Queens, and while I think he enjoyed the atmosphere and company, he didn’t stay long.
As Gaspar entered his fifth decade at DC Comics in the 1990s, he was often lettering on vellum overlays instead of on the original art, as in the examples above. This was a time-saving process for the company, or sometimes a matter of convenience if the artist was his own inker, as here with Simon Bisley. Having the lettering on a separate piece of paper (placed over a photocopy of the art) gives us a chance to study Gaspar’s creativity all the more easily. The content is irreverent, but the lettering is classic. On the top sample, you can see the placements he was given in red ink below the lettering, and how much he did with them.
In the 1990s digital lettering was on the rise, as more and more letterers made the switch from lettering by hand to creating fonts and/or lettering with a computer. Gaspar was one of the old guard who had no interest in digital work, and who were gradually pushed out of the comics lettering business. In 2002 DC announced they would be moving to an all-digital workflow. I believe Saladino’s last regular assignment for them was THE FLASH #190, cover-dated November 2002. Though he did occasional work for DC on covers — like the one above — and for other clients like Mad, he was essentially retired at age 75 after 53 years of steady lettering for DC. When I started writing about lettering and comics history for my blog in 2007, I began calling Gaspar on the phone and talking to him about his life and work. We both enjoyed those talks, reminiscing about the old days, and I learned a lot, some of which I’ve shared here.
In August 2014, Gaspar surprised me by saying he was interested in attending that year’s New York Comic-Con in Manhattan in October. Despite his 63 years in comics, Gaspar had never had much interest in comics fandom and had never been to a comics convention. I made arrangements for Gaspar, myself, and many letterers who were fans to meet there, and it was a wonderful day. Gaspar’s health was not great, and he needed a cane or a wheelchair to get around, but I think he enjoyed the attention of his “lettering posse,” and meeting up with old friends like Neal Adams and Len Wein. His mind was still sharp, his laugh infectious, and we had plenty of great conversation at the show and at dinner afterwards. More on that HERE.
I believe the last page lettering that Gaspar did was for an unfinished small-press project, Empire of Blood, by writers Magnus Aspli and Michael Deshane and artist Jelena Djordjevic, sample above, more about it HERE. As you can see, he still had the skills. In 2012 he also lettered a version of Neil Gaiman’s poem The Day the Saucers Came with art by Paul Chadwick that was published in Dark Horse Presents #21, Feb 2013.
In 2012 Gaspar also designed what I think was his last comics logo for the JOE FRANKENSTEIN miniseries published in 2015. More about it HERE. These and a few other jobs were sent Gaspar’s way by letterer and friend Clem Robins and myself.
Gaspar Saladino passed on August 4, 2016 at the age of 88, a few weeks short of his 89th birthday. He was always humble about his work, and I know he would have been surprised by but appreciative of the many accolades that came his way from the comics community when it happened. For at least the second half of his career, fans knew his name and appreciated his talent. I miss him, but I’m happy to be able to keep the memory of Gaspar and his stellar work alive.
I’m delighted to report that in 2023, Gaspar was inducted into the Eisner Awards Hall of Fame, (scroll down in the link to “2023 Eisner Hall of Fame Judges’ Choices.”) I believe Gaspar is the very first person with a career primarily as a letterer to have that honor. Well deserved, and about time.
More articles on my blog about Saladino and his work:
Gaspar Saladino at DC: ACTION COMICS ADVENTURE COMICS ADVENTURES OF BOB HOPE ADVENTURES OF JERRY LEWIS ADVENTURES OF SUPERMAN ALL-AMERICAN MEN OF WAR ALL-AMERICAN WESTERN ALL DC TABLOID COMICS ALL-OUT WAR ALL-STAR COMICS ALL-STAR SQUADRON & AMERICA VS. THE JUSTICE SOCIETY ALL-STAR WESTERN AMBUSH BUG AMETHYST ANGEL & THE APE and ANTHRO AQUAMAN ARAK THE ATOM OTHER A TITLES BAT LASH BATMAN OTHER BATMAN TITLES BEST OF DC BEWARE THE CREEPER and BOOSTER GOLD BLACK CONDOR and BLACK LIGHTNING BLACKHAWK BLUE BEETLE and BLUE DEVIL BOMBA and BOOK OF FATE THE BRAVE AND THE BOLD OTHER B TITLES CAPTAIN ACTION and CAPTAIN ATOM CAPTAIN CARROT CAPT. STORM CHALLENGERS OF THE UNKNOWN CHECKMATE CLAW and COPS OTHER C TITLES DANGER TRAIL DARING NEW ADVENTURES OF SUPERGIRL DATE WITH DEBBI & DEBBI’S DATES DC COMICS PRESENTS DC SPECIAL DC SPECIAL BLUE RIBBON DIGEST DC SPECIAL SERIES THE DEMON DETECTIVE COMICS DOOM PATROL OTHER D TITLES ECLIPSO OTHER E TITLES FALLING IN LOVE FIRESTORM THE FLASH (1959) THE FLASH (1987) THE FOREVER PEOPLE FROM BEYOND THE UNKNOWN OTHER F TITLES GHOSTS G.I. COMBAT GIRLS’ LOVE STORIES GIRLS’ ROMANCES GREEN LANTERN OTHER G TITLES THE HAWK AND THE DOVE HAWKMAN HEART THROBS HELLBLAZER HOPALONG CASSIDY HOUSE OF MYSTERY HOUSE OF SECRETS OTHER H TITLES INFERIOR FIVE INFINITY INC. OTHER I TITLES JIMMY OLSEN JIMMY WAKELY JONAH HEX JUSTICE LEAGUE OF AMERICA OTHER JUSTICE LEAGUE TITLES OTHER J TITLES KAMANDI OTHER K TITLES LEGION OF SUPER-HEROES (1980) LEGION OF SUPER-HEROES (1984) OTHER LEGION TITLES L.E.G.I.O.N. LOIS LANE OTHER L TITLES MAD MANHUNTER & MEN OF WAR METAL MEN MISTER MIRACLE MYSTERY IN SPACE OTHER M TITLES NEW ADVENTURES OF SUPERBOY NEW GODS NEW TEEN TITANS (1980) NEW TEEN TITANS (1984) OTHER N TITLES OMAC OMEGA MEN OUR ARMY AT WAR OUR FIGHTING FORCES OTHER O TITLES PHANTOM STRANGER OTHER P TITLES THE QUESTION R.E.B.E.L.S. REX THE WONDER DOG ROBIN HOOD TALES ROMANCE TRAIL OTHER R TITLES SANDMAN and SHADOW SEA DEVILS SECRET HEARTS SECRET ORIGINS SECRET SIX and SECRET SOCIETY OF SUPER-VILLAINS SECRETS OF HAUNTED HOUSE SENSATION COMICS SGT. ROCK SHAZAM! SHOWCASE SHADE, STARFIRE and STARMAN SILVERBLADE and SKIN GRAFT THE SPECTRE STAR-SPANGLED, STANLEY, STALKER and STEEL STAR SPANGLED WAR STORIES STAR TREK STRANGE ADVENTURES SUGAR AND SPIKE SUICIDE SQUAD SUPERBOY SUPER DC GIANT SUPER FRIENDS SUPERGIRL SUPERMAN (1939) SUPERMAN (1987) SUPERMAN FAMILY OTHER SUPER TITLES SWAMP THING SWING WITH SCOOTER OTHER S TITLES TALES OF THE (NEW) TEEN TITANS TALES OF THE UNEXPECTED TARZAN (DC) TEEN TITANS TOMAHAWK OTHER T TITLES UNKNOWN SOLDIER VIGILANTE OTHER U AND V TITLES WANTED WARLORD WEIRD WAR TALES WEIRD WESTERN WEIRD WORLDS WESTERN COMICS WITCHING HOUR WONDER WOMAN (1942) WONDER WOMAN (1987) WORLD’S FINEST OTHER W TITLES YOUNG ALL-STARS YOUNG LOVE YOUNG ROMANCE ZATANNA & ZERO HOUR
Gaspar Saladino’s Comics Ads: 1952-1967 Jan-June 1968 July-Dec 1968 Jan-April 1969 May-July 1969 Aug-Dec 1969 Jan-May 1970 June-Dec 1970 1971-1972 1973-1974 1975-1976 1977 1978 1979 Jan-May 1980 June-Dec 1980 1981-1988
Gaspar Saladino at Marvel: 1967-1968 AMAZING ADVENTURES AMAZING SPIDER-MAN ASTONISHING TALES AVENGERS Part 1 Part 2 BLOOD: A TALE CAPTAIN AMERICA Part 1 Part 2 CAPTAIN MARVEL CHAMPIONS CHAMBER CREATURES AND CRYPT CLIVE BARKER’S HELLRAISER CONAN DAREDEVIL Part 1 Part 2 DEADLY HANDS OF KUNG-FU DEFENDERS DR. STRANGE & DEAD OF NIGHT DRACULA LIVES ECTOKID OTHER A TO E FANTASTIC FOUR Part 1 Part 2 FEAR & FRANKENSTEIN GHOST RIDER GIANT-SIZE GODZILLA HERO, HAUNT & HOWARD HUMAN TORCH & HUMAN FLY INCREDIBLE HULK Part 1 Part 2 INVADERS IRON FIST & INHUMANS IRON MAN Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 JOHN CARTER WARLORD OF MARS JOURNEY INTO MYSTERY & JUNGLE ACTION KA-ZAR KULL LIGHT & DARKNESS WAR & MOEBIUS OTHER F TO L MAN-THING MARVEL PREMIERE Part 1 Part 2 MARVEL CHILLERS & TALES MARVEL SPOTLIGHT MARVEL TEAM-UP Part 1 Part 2 MARVEL TREASURY EDITION MARVEL TWO-IN-ONE Part 1 Part 2 OTHER “MARVEL…” MASTER OF KUNG-FU MGM’S WIZARD OF OZ MS. MARVEL OTHER M TITLES NOVA POWER MAN OTHER N TO R SAVAGE & SKULL SGT. FURY SIX FROM SIRIUS SPIDER-MAN SPIDER-WOMAN & SPIDEY SUPER STORIES STRANGE TALES SUB-MARINER SUPER-VILLAIN TEAM-UP SWORDS OF THE SWASHBUCKLERS OTHER S TITLES THOR Part 1 Part 2 TOMB OF DRACULA Part 1 Part 2 VAULT OF EVIL & WEIRD WONDER TALES OTHER T TO V WEREWOLF BY NIGHT WHAT IF? X-MEN OTHER W TO Z
Gaspar Saladino at Other Publishers: 1950s APPLE ARIA ATLAS/SEABOARD Part 1 Part 2 AURORA CONTINUITY DARK HORSE DISNEY HARVEY KING FEATURES NATIONAL LAMPOON NAL STAR*REACH TOWER TRIAD WALLY WOOD WARREN WESTERN PUBLISHING Part 1 Part 2
The DC Comics Offices 1930s to 1950s Part 4
GASPAR SALADINO’S COMICS LOGOS 1963-July 1968 Aug-Dec 1968 Jan-April 1969 May-Dec 1969 1970 1971 Jan-June 1972 July-Dec 1972 Jan-June 1973 July-Dec 1973 1974 Jan-May 1975 June-Dec 1975 1976 1977-1978 1979-1982 1983-1985 1986-2015