Tarzan first appeared in serialized form in 1912, and was first published in book form in 1914 in the title “Tarzan of the Apes,” and that’s where I’m beginning this logo study. What I’m really talking about at this early stage are not logos, though, but titles. The idea of a logo representing a fictional character wasn’t really thought of yet, at least not in the way we know it now. Above is the dust jacket of that first book cover, designed and illustrated by Fred J. Arting. Quite an attractive design to my eye, though his Tarzan in silhouette isn’t portrayed in a very heroic way, looking slouched and a bit paunchy. The title is quite nice, using a rounded-serif style of letters that I’m sure was popular at the time, and is still seen today, though more often on children’s books, I think. The design of the title and its placement is also attractive and creative, with “of the” slanted and in the orange sun circle, and “Apes” reversed out of the green foliage. An effective design using only a few solid colors.
The front cover of the book itself is also very attractively designed, and here Arting really went to town with his hand-drawn letters, adding attractive curlicues. Notice how the lower end of the F in “of” curls around the vertical stroke of the A. “Of the” and the author’s name are in a different, thinner style here than on the dust jacket, delightfully designed by someone who obviously was well schooled in hand-lettered titles. Again, it has more of a story-book fantasy feel than the content of the novel would suggest to me, but I think it looks great.
With the second book, “The Return of Tarzan,” artist J. Allen St. John came in as illustrator, and for most of the Burroughs titles that followed, he remained the interior and cover illustrator and designer. Here’s his fine dust jacket for the fourth novel, “The Son of Tarzan” from 1917. St. John picked up all the strengths of Arting and carried them further: his character design for Tarzan is more muscular and heroic, his art is well drawn and exciting, and his titles and lettering are equally appealing, and perhaps a bit more “masculine,” whatever that means. Here the pointed downward strokes of the T and F shaped like swords suggest that to me, anyway. The letters still have serifs, but they’re more pointed, less rounded. Again, in St. John, the publisher had found an artist who really knew his stuff with hand-lettered titles. And St. John continued to be inventive, devising new variations with each Tarzan book.
Sometimes he got a bit too carried away with the swoops and curls though, with this title page being the worst example. And here “THE SON OF” is uncharacteristically blocky and stiff, not matching the rest well. Great work on the rest of the titles and credits, though. Love those Gs in the author’s name, and the decorative shapes between lines.
Here’s another example with a completely different take on the word TARZAN, still serif, with open lines running through the letters, which are tightly spaced but still very readable. Clearly there was no thought of a consistent, repeating style except that of the artist himself. Each book and each project was approached with fresh vision. And what wonderful variations St. John came up with.
Here’s another where he’s having way too much fun with the Z. Wish I could get away with that sort of thing on comics logos!
For the 1923 novel, Burrough’s ninth about the character, St. John came up with what I think is his best title yet. Notice how the dagger-like vertical stroke of the T has grown in width and length, really anchoring the design of the word, which now has much more of a logo feel. It’s strong and iconic, just as the character is, and the elegantly curled banner adds even more stature and importance to the title, looking back to storybooks and manuscripts of old, suggesting grand battles on a field of valor. I like how St. John has joined all the letters after the T in TARZAN, adding to the “logo” feel. You might have thought someone would have said, “That’s it! Let’s use that on ALL the books!” But no one did, and St. John continued to come up with new ideas, though there were some repeats.
Here’s one from a novel published in 1934 with a stencilled technique in the design.
And here’s one from the late Burroughs novel “Tarzan and the Foreign Legion” from 1947, which Philip Normand informs me was designed by Edgar Rice Burroughs’ son John Coleman Burroughs. Philip writes:
The cover art and titling for all of ERB’s books after 1936 were all done by Burroughs’ son, John Coleman Burroughs. The last jacket and cover titling St. John did was for TARZAN’S QUEST, September, 1936. The story of St. John’s association with Ed’s own publishing company is actually a bit sad as he tried to get the artist to cut his prices even though he knew he would get superior work. The first ERB, Inc. books used his nephew Studley O. Burroughs for the art, but when Studley couldn’t meet the deadline on TARZAN AND THE CITY OF GOLD, he turned to St. John. As book sales slowed in the mid-1930s Ed decided to give the art over to John Coleman, who he didn’t have to pay as much since he was part of the family.
Thanks for that helpful information, Philip. Okay, we’ve covered the books for now. Next time we finally get to the famous newspaper strip and the comics, I promise!
More chapters and other logo studies on my LOGO LINKS page.